Strength of materials
Presentations Statistical Calculations Dynamics and kinematics

Designing and optimization

Hydraulic gas dinamics Biomechanics
  Динамический расчет. Нелинейный анализ. Расчет конструкций.

Forging process optimization

In the process of forging, the defects of underfill as well as clamps (folds) may appear.

Reject Result of the second transition. Empty segments are shown blue

The process of forging was simulated with the aim to detect the causes of defects and appropriate remedies.

Forging is performed at an initial temperature of 1,150° at three stages: part blank upsetting, preliminary forging and finishing forging.

The defects appear at the stage of preliminary forging because the most active flow of material is observed during this transition. In this connection, it is necessary to ensure an optimal distribution of metal mass at all stages of the process.

Distribution of strain rate Plastic strain distribution

The calculation made it possible to determine optimal part blank upset and optimal degree of preliminary forging for uniform forming of a forged piece throughout the process. Very high friction between the part blank and the forging die was observed and it was suggested that the lubricant appropriate for hot forming would be used.

Experimental investigations showed that in the process of hot forging, especially at high rates, the upper die was filled better than the lower die.  This occurs due to cooling of the part blank bottom as a result of contact with a cold die during the time between positioning and striking. In the basic process, the upper die is flat and the lower die forms die impression. Therefore, it was recommended to rearrange upper and lower dies during the second transition so that more important die would be at the top.

Such rearrangement ensures better filling of die impression. Besides, this solution made it possible to position the part blank more precisely and avoid a range of defects attributed to its uneven position.

Hexa Company, 2008

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